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An average one bed flat in a tower block consumes between 1500-3,000kWh of electricity every year. this amounts to approximately a tonne of carbon dioxide emissions per year. The common areas consume approximately 20-40kWh/m2 per year.

 

Energy efficient  electrical fitting alone can save the tenants and landlords  20-30% on the electricity bill. Sustainable refurbishment presents an opportunity to reduce energy consumption, maintenance cost and related CO2 emissions, provide better monitoring and control, improved lighting levels and improve the overall quantity of fixtures.

 

Smart technologies can also be used to improve security, monitor well-being of elderly residents and generate energy on-site.

 

REFURBISHMENT OPTIONS

 basic

Install low energy lighting

Provide lighting controls

good

Provide efficient white goods

 exemplary

Provide health monitors for elderly

Install low energy lighting

 

Lighting is a major component of electrical  energy use in  tower blocks as the lights in communal areas remain switched  on through out the night. Majority of un-refurbished tower blocks use incandescent light bulbs [tungsten] or older fluorescent tubes [T12] with magnetic chokes to light the common areas. Replacing these fittings with energy efficient lighting can save up to 30-50% of the energy bills.

 

Low energy lamps and ballast [control gear], must at least have a luminous efficacy of 40 lumens/circuit-watt [see graph].

 

Indoor lighting

As a rule of thumb, Compact Fluorescent Lamps [CFLs] and T5 fluorescent tubes with electronic ballast are most suitable for lighting the communal areas.

 

Outdoor/ security lighting

CFLs are suitable for external use, especially where lighting is required through the night. High-pressure discharge lights could also be considered where high lighting output is required.

However, conventional incandescent lights may be more suitable in areas where frequent switching may occur.

 

Case study: Jackson House, London Borough of Enfield:

The lighting in the tower block's communal areas, which had tungsten lamps, were changed to CFLs. Energy consumption was monitored before and after the lamp replacement programme. The mean electricity reduction was found to be 27%. The payback period was found to be less that 1 year. [Source: Good Practice Case Study 86, BRESCU]

 

 

Other considerations

 

Lighting quality

Corridors require good, uniform lighting so that residents can find their way quickly and efficiently. Effort must be taken to prevent "tunnel effects" in extended corridors.

Illuminated walls make a corridor look wider; indirect light bounced off the ceiling makes it look more open and welcoming.

In long corridors, it is also recommended that luminaires should be set at right angles to the direction of movement to make the corridor appear shorter.


Staircases: People are more prone to accidents on the stairs  therefore, care must be taken to ensure that they are uniformly illuminated. An ideal location for luminaires is the under side of the landing. This ensures that each tread is clearly seen. Staircase lighting calls for luminaires designed for wide-angled intensity distribution: adequate numbers of wall or ceiling luminaires mounted parallel to the stairs.

For the first three storeys of the tower block orientation lights may be provided, which can be either recess- or surface-mounted on walls or set into the risers of stairs. Staircases are also escape routes. Escape route marking and lighting must be installed and maintained in line with the relevant standards.
 

Lifts: Many people feel uneasy when they enter a lift. Enclosed lifts can fuel claustrophobia, glass lifts in high halls trigger fear of heights. Lighting at lift access points should therefore be reassuring, which is achieved by providing significantly higher illuminance, boosted, for example, by wall luminaires on the right and left of the lift doors. This makes for a greater sense of security.
Inside lifts, surfaces should basically be light-coloured. Mirrors and gloss-finish walls and ceilings not only promote an agreeable ambience; they also make the lift seem bigger. Lighting with a strong diffuse component prevents deep sharp-edged shadows on the face of other lift users.
[Source: Fordergemeinschaft Gute Light]
 

Light level:

CIBSE Guide recommends an average lighting level between 100 to 150lux for stairs, landings and corridors.

 

Light pollution

Fittings for outdoor lighting should be selected so that they do not directed light onto the sky. Not only is this wasteful in energy terms it also ‘pollutes’ the view of the sky.

 

Benefits

  • Energy and CO2 reduction

  • Reduced maintenance cost

  • Improved lighting level

  • Improve the overall quantity of fixtures

Lamp Efficacy

Source: LRC

Typical Cost

□  CFL [Internal]: £40-£80

□  CFL [External]: £65-£155

□  T5 + electronic ballasts [Internal]: £60-125

□  T5 + electronic ballasts [External]: £70-200

 

All rates include tubes, luminaires & installation

 

Funding opportunities:
□  n/a

Also see:

  Provide lighting controls

More information:

□ www.est.org.uk/bestpractice

□  www.advancedbuildings.org

□  www.darksky.org

□  www.cibse.org/pdfs/factf2.pdf

Suppliers:

□  Philips Lighting

□  GE Lighting Ltd

□  OSRAM Ltd

To register as a supplier click here...

 

Provide lighting controls

 

Controls for  lighting especially in the communal areas can be one of the most efficient ways to save electricity in tower blocks.

The main types of lighting controls are as follows:

  • Daylight sensors,

  • Occupancy [ motion or presence] sensors

  • Timer control

  • Centralised controls

Daylight sensors: photo-electric sensors are used to automatically turn lighting on or off, or for dimming, depending on the daylight available in the space.

These can be used in entrances and floor lobbies which have adequate natural light during the day [at least most times of the day] so that the lights come on or off automatically. 

 

Occupancy sensors:  infrared and ultrasonic sensors turn lights on when people enter a space and turn them off after they leave.

These can be used in circulation areas such as, corridors and stairs and for security lighting. However, to avoid lights from turning completely off when a space is unoccupied they can be used in conjunction with dimming controls. In these situations, the lights can be dimmed to a predetermined level when the space is unoccupied.

 

Timer control: Clock switches keep lighting on or off for a specific period of time.

These could be installed in almost all communal areas both internally and externally to turn on lights for the nighttime. Some lights in these areas could be set to turn off earlier than the rest.

 

Centralised controls: these can be used to automatically turn on, turn off, and/or dim lighting at specific times or under certain load conditions from a central location i.e., Building Management System [BMS].

 

Vandal resistant covering over control sensor

Benefits

  • Controls can account for up to 60% of the energy savings.

  • Energy and CO2 reduction

  • Reduced maintenance cost

  • Reduced light pollution at night

Typical Cost

□  Daylight sensors: £85-£140

□  Passive Infra Red (PIR): £60-£125

□  Timer controls: £70-£200

 

Funding opportunities:
□  n/a

Also see:

□  Low energy lighting

More information:

□  n/a

Suppliers:

□  Leax UK

□  Philips Lighting

□  GE Lighting Ltd

□  OSRAM Ltd

To register as a supplier click here...

 

Provide efficient white goods

 

Energy used by white goods such as fridges, washing machines and dishwashers can contribute to about 10-20% of the energy cost in a typical tower block flat.

 

By law, the EU Energy Efficiency Labels must be displayed on all new domestic goods including;

  • Fridges, freezers and fridge-freezers

  • Washing machines

  • Tumble dryers

  • Washer dryers

  • Dishwashers

  • Electric ovens

  • Air conditioners

  • Light bulbs

The labeling allows consumers to clearly see the efficiency and energy consumption of a product. The system primarily shows energy efficiency on categories ranging from A to G.  'A' rated products are the most energy efficient and 'G' rated products are the least energy efficient.

 

It also illustrates other issues such as, noise, water consumption and CO2 emissions. Since 1st July 2004, 3 new categories have be added to take into account the rising demand for A rated good (A, A+ and A++).

 

If white goods are to provided as a part of the tower block refurbishment, 'A' - rated white goods should be considered.

 

 

'A' Energy Label

Benefits

  • In flats, where the white good have not been replaced in the last 10years, A-rated appliance can save £20/year on fridges and £5 for Washing M/C1

  • Energy and CO2 reduction

  • Reduced water consumption

Typical Cost

□  n/a

Funding opportunities:
□  n/a

Also see:

□  □  Low energy lighting

More information:

□ Energy Savings Trust 

□ DEFRA

□ 1East Lindsey District Council

Suppliers:

□  www.greenconsumerguide.com

To register as a supplier click here...

 

Provide health monitors for elderly

 

In flats with elderly people unobtrusive health and wellness  monitoring systems can be installed.  Sensors to detect abnormal movements or a fall are available in the market.

 

For people who may require intensive care, the sensors could also be connected to an alarm system or to a nurse station to provide information such as when the patient leaves the bed or goes to the toilet.

 

The system consists of a digital, wall-mounted processor and a bed sensor placed under the mattress. An optional floor sensor can be added to provide additional alarm features.

 

Benefits

  • Heath, wellness and safely for the elderly

Typical Cost

□  n/a

Funding opportunities:
□  n/a

Also see:

□  Meet DDA requirements

More information:

□ Global Aging

Suppliers:

□  Emfitech

To register as a supplier click here...

Project partners:           | Price Myers: Sustainability |Battle McCarthy | Architype | STBI | Franklin Andrews |            

           

Copyright 2004  Price & Myers Sustainability                                 last updated: 11/25/11

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